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Citing sources

Chicago Style Examples

The Chicago Manual of Style uses two different styles of documentation and citation: the humanities style which uses notes and a bibliographies (in-text citations done in the form of endnotes or footnotes), and the author-date system (in-text citations done in parentheses), which is used more frequently in the natural and social sciences. 

Book: basic form, single author

Bibliographic entry

Author/Date:
Webber, Michael. 2016. Thirst for Power: Energy, Water, and Human Survival. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Notes and Bibliographies:
Webber, Michael. Thirst for Power: Energy, Water, and Human Survival. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016. 

In-text citation

Author/Date:

Webber (2016) explores the complex relationship between water and energy and how they are interdependent upon one another when cultivated by humans (44).

Note (footnote or endnote): 
Michael Webber, Thirst for Power: Energy, Water, and Human Survival (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016), 44.

Book: basic form, two authors

Bibliographic entry

Author/Date:
Holmes, Richard T, and Gene E. Likens. 2016. Hubbard Brook: The Story of a Forest Ecosystem. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Notes and Bibliographies:
Holmes, Richard T, and Gene E. Likens. Hubbard Brook: The Story of a Forest Ecosystem. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016. 

In-text citation

Author/Date:

Sulfuric acid is the most notorious compound to cause acid rain, but nitric acid, ozone and dissolved ionic aluminum also affect ecosystems (Holmes and Likens 2016, 127).

Note (footnote or endnote): 
Richard T. Holmes and Gene E. Likens, Hubbard Brook: The Story of a Forest Ecosystem (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016), 127.

Chapter in Edited work

Bibliographic entry

Author/Date: 
Meyer, Sabine N. 2016. "The Marshall Trilogy and Its Legacies."  In The Routledge Companion to Native American Literature, edited by Deborah L. Madsen, 123-134. New YorkRoutledge.

Notes and Bibliographies:
Meyer, Sabine N. "The Marshall Trilogy and Its Legacies."  In The Routledge Companion to Native American Literature, edited by Deborah L. Madsen, 123-134. New York: Routledge, 2016.

In-text citation

Author/Date: 
In her 2016 chapter "The Marshall Trilogy and Its Legacies," author Sabine N. Meyer discusses the three legal cases that form the basic framework of federal Indian law in the United States and the impact it has had on Native Americans. 

Note (footnote or endnote):
Sabine N. Meyer, "The Marshal Trilogy and Its Legacies," in The Routledge Companion to Native American Literature, ed. Deborah L. Madsen (New York: Routledge, 2016), 126.

Journal Article

Bibliographic entry

Author/Date:
Biswas, Soumendu, V. N. Giri, and Kailash B. L. Srivastava. 2007. "Assessing the Impact of Organizational Culture and Communication on Employee Performance and Organizational Effectiveness." Psychological Studies 52, no. 1 (Spring): 20-28. (add link if available)

Notes and Bibliographies:
Biswas, Soumendu, V. N. Giri, and Kailash B. L. Srivastava. "Assessing the Impact of Organizational Culture and Communication on Employee Performance and Organizational Effectiveness.
" Psychological Studies 52, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 20-28. (add link if available)

In-text citation

Author/Date: Employees thrive and report higher levels of self-esteem in workplaces that have established mentor programs (Biswas, Giri, and Srivastava 2007, 27).

Note (footnote or endnote): Soumendu Biswas, V.N. Giri, and Kailash B.L. Srivastava, "Assessing the Impact of Organizational Culture and Communication on Employee Performance and Organizational Effectiveness," Psychological Studies 52, no.1 (2007): 23.

Magazine or Newspaper Article 

Bibliographic entry

Author/Date:
Reiter, Ben. 2015. "Brain Trust. (Cover Story)." Sports Illustrated, March 11, 2015. (add link if available)

Notes and Bibliographies:
Reiter, Ben. "Brain Trust. (Cover Story)." Sports Illustrated, March 11, 2015. (add link if available)

In-text citation

Author/Date: According to Reiter (2015), sports-related brain injuries are on the minds of many Americans these days (29).

Note (footnote or endnote): Ben Reiter, "Brain Trust (Cover Story)," Sports Illustrated, March 11, 2015, 29.

For more Reference List examples visit the Chicago Style Quick Citation Guide.