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Citing sources

APA Manual

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APA Style Examples

Book: basic form, single author

Webber, M. E. (2016). Thirst for power: Energy, water, and human survival. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Webber, 2016)
  • Narrative citation: Webber (2016)

Book: basic form, two authors

Holmes, R.T., & Likens, G.E. (2016). Hubbard book: The story of a forest ecosystem. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Holmes & Likens, 2016)
  • Narrative citation: Holmes and Likens (2016)

Chapter in Edited work

Meyer, S.N. (2016). The Marshall trilogy and its legacies. In D.L. Madsen (Ed.), The Routledge companion to Native American literature
     (pp.123-134). New York, NY
: Routledge.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Meyer, 2016)
  • Narrative citation: Meyer (2016)

Journal, magazine, or newspaper article without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version.
If you are referencing an electronic version of a journal article that also appears in print and has page numbers (like in a PDF), use page numbers instead of a URL.

Biswas, S., Giri, V. N., & Srivastava, K. L. (2007). Assessing the impact of organizational culture and communication on employee performance
      and organizational effectiveness. 
Psychological Studies52(1), 20-28.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Biswas et al., 2007)
  • Narrative citation: Biswas et al. (2007)

Card, J. (2016, July 25). In Gold Butte in Nevada, Ancient Rock Art and Rugged Beauty. The New York Times.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Card, 2016)
  • Narrative citation: Card (2016)

Journal Article with a DOI - if a publication includes a digital object identifier (DOI) use that instead of a URL.  

Escrig‐Olmedo, E., Muñoz‐Torres, M. J., Fernández‐Izquierdo, M. Á., & Rivera‐Lirio, J. M. (2017). Measuring corporate environmental performance:
     A methodology for sustainable development. 
Business Strategy And The Environment26(2), 142-162. https://doi:10.1002/bse.1904

  • Parenthetical citation: (Escrig-Olmedo, et. al., 2017)
  • Narrative citation: Escrig-Olmedo et al. (2017)

 Journal Article without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL - if you retrieve online but the article does not have a DOI, use the URL.

Reardon, K., Bromley, K.W., & Unruh, D. (2021). The promise of universal design in postsecondary education: A literature review. Journal of
     Postsecondary Education and Disability
, 34(3), 209-221.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Reardon, et. al., 2021)
  • Narrative citation: Reardon et al. (2021)


For more Reference List examples visit the Purdue OWL web site